10 Rules of conduct of government in Justice


JUSTICE:

10 Rules of the conduct of government in Justice:

Imam Ghazzali enumerates 10 rules of the conduct of government, chiefly in the matter of justice, which the ruler should bear in mind, namely—

  1. In every case he should mentally put himself in the position of the contending parties.
  2. He should fulfill the desire of those who have come to him for justice.
  3. Justice is possible only when the ruler does not indulge in luxurious food and clothing.
  4. He should practice leniency not harshness in his official dealings.
  5. He should try that the subjects should be content with the rule of Law; but
  6. He should not attempt any conciliation at the expense of the Law.
  7. He should supervise the affairs of the people in the same way as if he were to supervise his own household affairs and should deal with the powerful and the infirm in the same manner.
  8. He should try to meet the learned as often as he can and should encourage them to have their say.
  9. He should see that his servants, magistrates and other officers, perform their duties diligently and well.
  10. He should not be overpowered by any false sense of pride.

(These and other salutary principles are embodied in a chapter devoted to the art of government, the care of the subjects and kindred matter. In Kimiya, el. 2, base 10.)

[“Early Muslim Political thought and Administration” by Haroon Khan Sherwani pg. no 215-216]

Definition of Justice to Khalifah Umar bin Abdul Aziz:

Imam Ghazzali relates how the Khalifah Umar bin Abdul Aziz asked the definition of justice from Muhammad bin Ka’b of Cordova, to which the savant replied that real justice was dealing with the inferiors like a father, with superiors like a son and with equals like a brother and to award punishment only according to the wrong done and the power to bear it.

[“Early Muslim Political thought and Administration” by Haroon Khan Sherwani pg. no 216]

Definition by Khalifah Ali:

He quotes the Khalifah Ali that the best judge is he who is not prejudiced in his decisions from personal desires, or by any leaning towards his relations, fear or hope, but takes a neutral attitude towards all that comes before him. (Tibr. P. 14)

[“Early Muslim Political thought and Administration” by Haroon Khan Sherwani pg. no 216]

Duties and Functions of the Executive:

Imam Ghazzali brings us to the duties and functions of the executive arm of the government centered in the person of the king or Ameer, and a whole book, the Tibru’l-Masbuk, is devoted to admonitions to the sovereigns who might care to pursue it. He enumerates the necessary qualities of an ideal, ruler, and says that he should have intellect, knowledge, perception, correct proportion of things, chivalry, love for his subjects, diplomatic bend, foresight, strong will-power, and should be well-versed in the news of the day and the history of the kings who have passed away, while he should always see that his magistrates, secretaries, viceroys and other officers did their work well; it is chiefly in these qualities, he says, which got to make a ruler the Shadow of God on Earth. (Tibr. p. 53)

[“Early Muslim Political thought and Administration” by Haroon Khan Sherwani pg. no 217-218]

Relating to Caliph Haroon Rasheed:

He relates to how a learned man once told the great Khalifah, Harun’r- Rasheed to beware that he was sitting where Abu Bakar once sat, demanding truthfulness, where Umar once sat, demanding differentiation between right and wrong, where Usman once sat, demanding modesty and bounty, where Ali once sat, demanding knowledge and justice. (Tibr, p. 15)

[“Early Muslim Political thought and Administration” by Haroon Khan Sherwani pg. no 218]

Advertisements

Leave a comment

Filed under Pakistan, Umer Sultan

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s