“It is no accident that the rise of anti-Semitism in nineteenth-century Europe coincided with the rise of nationalism. Nationalism, you will recall, presupposes a measure of ethnic or cultural homogeneity within a nation-state—something to bind a population together under a single collective identity. But the Jews represented a conspicuously alien culture that, despite centuries of living and thriving in every corner of Europe, had, in the minds of many, yet to sufficiently assimilate into European society (at least not enough to have disappeared altogether). The secret trial and false conviction of Alfred Dreyfus was a human tragedy. But the affair also raised much broader issues of a national identity among the French. The right-wing newspaper editor Edouard Drumont captured the sentiment of many French nationalists when he declared that Dreyfus’s betrayal was the inexorable destiny of his race. The Jews were a nation within a nation; it was inconceivable to think that their loyalties would be to France.”
Section E: Maintenance of Law and Order and Enforcement of Hudud
While the act of surveillance* is supposed to be the duty of every Muslim, this cannot be left as a totally voluntary duty. It is for the government to ensure that a group of persons is effectively engaged in this task on a full-time basis. In either case, the government must take a hortatory role and act as a moral force. It is equally the duty of the government to use its force in order to maintain law and order in the country. The Divine scheme of life as enunciated in the Qur’an and Hadith hates fasad (corruption) and zulm (injustice) in the society.
The frequent mention in the Qur’an that Allah does not like fasad and that Allah does not like zulm and the severe admonitions which the Qur’an associates with these vices make it obligatory for an Islamic state not only to suppress these vices but also to plug all the loopholes that lead one to indulge in them. The term fasad is used in the Qur’an to convey the following meanings: Continue reading