Sultan Hisham bin Abdur Rahman (d. 180 A.H./796 C.E. ) of Al-Andalus (The Muslim Spain) appointed his son, Hakam bin Hisham as his crown prince and took the oath of allegiance for Hakam from the courtiers.
On this occasion, Sultan Hisham said to his son Hakam:
“You must not make any difference between the poor and the rich. Treat your subordinates with kindness but punish any atrocious governor heavily. Keep full control over your forces and see that these forces are used for serving the country not destroying it; fulfill the promises; make every effort to keep your subjects happy for angry peope pose a threat to the Continue reading