Sultan Hisham bin Abdur Rahman (d. 180 A.H./796 C.E. ) of Al-Andalus (The Muslim Spain) appointed his son, Hakam bin Hisham as his crown prince and took the oath of allegiance for Hakam from the courtiers.
On this occasion, Sultan Hisham said to his son Hakam:
“You must not make any difference between the poor and the rich. Treat your subordinates with kindness but punish any atrocious governor heavily. Keep full control over your forces and see that these forces are used for serving the country not destroying it; fulfill the promises; make every effort to keep your subjects happy for angry peope pose a threat to the Continue reading
We know a lot about Mongols.
Muslims see it as the dark chapter in their history- destruction of Baghdad, destruction of the libraries and Muslim civilization, destruction of Samarkand, Basra, and many other great cities of Persia and present day Afghanistan. Never ending hordes of horses. Barbaric warriors that would not stop for rest and meal and when thirsty would stab a horse and drink its blood. Inhuman humans, who would butcher even women and children and then would compete with skull mountains!
Europeans see Mongols as a powerful force that knocked at the door steps of Europe. A military power that took over Eastern European states. A power that could not be defeated.